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Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Programmes (Cosmology)

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Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Programmes (Cosmology)

Posted by 曹晨 at August 24. 2007

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: Cosmology (3)
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Proposal ID: KPGT_soliver_1
Title: "The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES): Measuring the Infrared Galaxy Formation History of the Universe"
Principal Investigator: Seb Oliver (University of Sussex)
Category: KPGT
Summary:
A central challenge in astrophysics today is to understand the complex processes of galaxy formation: the development of galactic structure, the conversion of gas into stars, and the growth of supermassive black holes. The far-infrared / submillimetre waveband is of particular importance for studying these processes because roughly half of the cosmic energy density produced by galaxies arises from optical/UV starlight that has been absorbed by dust and reradiated at these wavelengths. Existing surveys are already presenting a serious challenge for theorists, revealing many more luminous, massive galaxies at high redshifts than are predicted by simple prescriptions within the hierarchical merging paradigm. Submillimetre surveys however have been extremely limited but have already provided tantalizing clues to a strongly evolving population of infrared-luminous galaxies. We propose HerMES, the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, to chart the formation and evolution of infrared galaxies throughout cosmic history. HerMES consists of a nested set of fields that will bring unprecedented depth and breadth to the study of infrared galaxies. We will use HerMES to measure the bolometric emission of infrared galaxies, study the evolution of the luminosity function, measure their clustering properties, and probe populations of galaxies below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. We will make maximum use of ancillary surveys from radio to X-ray wavelengths to facilitate redshift determination, rapidly identify unusual objects, and understand the relationships between thermal dust emission and other emission mechanisms. HerMES will provide a rich data set legacy for the greater astronomical community to mine for years to come.
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Proposal ID: KPGT_kmeisenh_1
Title: "The Dusty Young Universe: Photometry and Spectroscopy of Quasars at z>2"
Principal Investigator: Klaus Meisenheimer (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie)
Category: KPGT
Summary:
The detection of a significant fraction of the highest redshift quasars (z > 5) in the (sub-)mm wavelength range indicates that a substantial amount of dust has been synthesized already during the first billion year since the Big Bang. Recent 24 micron observations with Spitzer have shown that very hot dust is present close to the QSO core in most z >5 quasars. However, both the (sub-)mm and MIR observations can only catch tails of the dust emission spectrum, at lambda_rest > 200 µm, and at lambda_rest 5 µm, respectively. Measuring the peak of the dust emission, expected to reach 10 ... 30 mJy around lambda_rest ~ 50 µm (120µm lambda_obs 700µm), has been beyond the capabilities of FIR satellites or ground-based sub-mm telescopes. Thus, critical properties, such as FIR luminosity, dust temperatures and mass, remain unconstrained. To improve on this situation, we propose a Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Programme (GT KP) to collect far-infrared and sub-millimeter photometry of more than 100 high redshift quasars using the PACS and SPIRE instruments. We plan to determine the SEDs of three samples of QSOs: (i) all z > 5 quasars known to date, (ii) a dozen radio loud quasars and galaxies at the highest redshifts, and (iii) 29 Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars together with a comparison sample of 17 non-BAL QSOs at matching redshifts. In addition, we plan to obtain PACS spectroscopy of four very dust-rich and lensed high-redshift QSOs and galaxies for spectral line diagnostics, which will help to disentangle the contributions of AGN- and starburst-heated dust and thus complement the SED-based study. We will spend in total 165 hours of PACS GT in this key programme, 115 hours for the photometry with PACS and SPIRE, and 50 hours for the FIR spectroscopy. )
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Proposal ID: KPGT_dlutz_1
Title: "PACS Evolutionary Probe - A guaranteed time key programme survey of the extragalactic sky"
Principal Investigator: Dieter Lutz (Max Planck Institut fuer E. Physik)
Category: KPGT
Summary:
We describe a key programme using the unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution of Herschel for a comprehensive far-infrared photometric survey of the extragalactic sky. Blank field surveys using PACS at 170, 110 and 75 micron are supplemented with targeted observations of massive z~1 clusters and lensing clusters. We will resolve the bulk of the Cosmic Infrared Background, determine the nature of its constituent sources and trace the evolution of dust-obscured star formation. Our survey will study the evolution of galaxies and AGN over a wide range of redshifts and in environments of different density, and provide the crucial far-infrared measurements lacking for a full understanding of intermediate and high redshift galaxy populations previously identified at other wavelengths. We have chosen fields with excellent multi-wavelength coverage enabling both rapid science results and a lasting legacy value. This survey is coordinated with Herschel/SPIRE observations of the same fields in a Key programme submitted by the SPIRE SAG 1.
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